PASSAGE MARKING- STEP ONE
(a) Highlight adjectives.
(b) Using a second color, highlight verbs.
(c) Create a key at the bottom of your passage for the colors you’ve used.
(d) Given the evidence you’ve collected from the marking you’ve done of adjectives and verbs, comment on the author’s overall diction. Some suggested vocabulary for describing diction: concrete, abstract, concise, objective, formal, informal, neutral, precise, literal, figurative, connotative, symbolic, picturesque, sensuous, literary, colloquial, slang, inexact, euphemistic, grotesque, jargon, emotional, scholarly.
(e) Important: one passage at a time!! And, add to the examples already provided!
PASSAGE MARKING- STEP TWO
(a) In the left margin, [bracket] lines in which the author is creating images (think-word pictures). Make a marginal notation of the sense(s) to which the image appeals.
(b) Given the evidence you’ve collected from the marking you’ve done, comment on the author’s imagery. AP prompts often ask students to discuss the author’s imagery. The most successful student writers are able to categorize the images in a prose passage or poem. Such categorization may be articulated with precise adjectives like these: Gustatory (appealing to appetite, taste), olfactory (appealing to the sense of smell), tactile (appealing to the sense of touch), sensual, sacred, sexual, and auditory (appealing to the sense of sound, religious, animal, war/military, chaotic. Imagery may also be classified with nouns
PASSAGE MARKING- STEP THREE
(a) Box three important details that you think the author chose to clarify the purpose in the passage.
(b) Given the evidence you’ve collected from the marking you’ve done, comment on the author’s selection of detail. Ask yourself why the author would choose to include those pieces of information
PASSAGE MARKING- STEP FOUR
(a) Using a third color, highlight any figurative language that appears in your passage. Make a marginal notation of the type of figurative language (simile, metaphor, personification, or hyperbole).
(b) Add this third color to the key you’ve created at the bottom of your passage.
(c) Given the evidence you’ve collected from the marking you’ve done, comment below on the author’s figurative language, including the extent to which he/she creates figurative language.
PASSAGE MARKING- STEP FIVE
(a) Place an asterisk* to the right of all lines in which the author’s sentence structure is parallel.
(b) Use the space below to comment on the author’s syntax including sentence length, sentence beginnings, deliberate fragments, dashes, and any other features of purposeful sentence construction. Also look for polysyndeton and/or asyndeton.
CONNECTING STYLE TO PURPOSE.
(1) Choose a passage
(2) Using the data you have collected above, choose a purpose and an aspect of style.
(3) Carefully compose a chunk that connects style to purpose. Follow the guidelines for quotation sandwiches below.
(4) Write your chunk in the space below the guidelines for quotation sandwiches.
o The context in which a device appears in the text = the top slice of the quotation sandwich. Context provides the answers to the 5 Ws (who, what, where, when, and why).
o The example of the device, strategy, or aspect of style = the filling of the quotation sandwich.
o The connection of the device to meaning = the bottom slice of the quotation sandwich. Think about what the device shows (rather than tells) the reader.
o Avoid generic commentary. Examples: gets the reader’s attention, draws the reader in, puts a picture in the reader’s mind, shows the writer’s point, shows how the writer feels, etc.
o Use as models the two quotation sandwiches at the bottom of the page.
Passage: _________ Purpose: _______________________________________________________
Aspect of style: _____________________________________________________________________
Chunk connecting style to purpose:
The Quotation Sandwich
The Quotation Sandwich is composed of the following three ingredients:
1. The Top Slice: An Argumentative Claim
2. The Filling: A Quote that supports the claim
3. The Bottom Slice: Commentary about the quote
Claim. Quote. Comment.
Easy to remember.
• The claim is your opinion on the material, written as a statement of fact. Technically, you are making an interpretive statement, analyzing the poem, story, data chart, etc. The claim presents a smaller portion of the essay’s bigger argument.
• The quote provides concrete, textual support for the claim statement. NOTE: This does not mean that the wording you choose has to come from a spoken sentence written between quotation marks in the original text.
• The commentary functions to tie the quote to the claim. You are taking a sentence to explain why your evidence is important to your idea.